Cancer causes the uncontrollable division of cells. This can lead to tumors, damage to the immune system and other deficiencies that can be fatal.
In the United States, an estimated 15.5 million people with a history of cancer lived on January 1, 2016, according to a report published in 2018 by the American Cancer Society.
Cancer is a broad term. It describes the disease that results from cellular changes that cause uncontrolled cell growth and division. Some types of cancer result in rapid cell growth, while others result in slower cell growth and division. Some forms of cancer cause visible growths called tumors, while others, such as leukemia, do not.
Most body cells have specific functions and a fixed life span. Although this may seem like a bad thing, cell death is part of a natural and beneficial phenomenon called apoptosis. A cell receives instructions to die so that the body can replace it with a new cell that works better. Cancer cells do not have the components that require them to stop dividing and dying.
As a result, they accumulate in the body using oxygen and nutrients that would typically feed other cells. Cancer cells can form tumors, alter the immune system and cause other changes that prevent the body from functioning regularly. The cancer cells can appear in one area and then spread through the lymph nodes.
In the United States, more than 480,000 people die each year from smoking, according to data released in 2014.
In addition to smoking, cancer risk factors include:
Other causes of cancer are not preventable. Currently, the most important non-avoidable risk factor is age. According to the American Cancer Society, American doctors diagnose 87% of cancer cases among people aged 50 and over.
Is cancer genetic?
Genetic factors can contribute to the development of cancer.
A person’s genetic code tells his cells when to divide and expire. Changes in genes can lead to erroneous instructions that can lead to cancer. Genes also influence the production of proteins by cells, which contain many instructions for cell growth and division.
Some genes alter the proteins that usually repair damaged cells. This can lead to cancer. If a parent has these genes, he can pass the modified instructions to his offspring. Some genetic changes occur after birth and factors such as smoking and sun exposure may increase the risk. The chemical signals that determine how the body deploys or “expresses” specific genes can also lead to cancer.
Finally, a person may inherit a predisposition to a type of cancer. A doctor may talk about a hereditary cancer syndrome. Hereditary genetic mutations contribute significantly to the development of 5 to 10% of cancer cases.
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Treatment of cancer
Innovative research has fueled the development of new cancer drugs and treatment for cancer technologies.
Doctors generally prescribe Cancer treatments based on the type of cancer, its stage of diagnosis, and the general state of health of the person.
Examples of approaches to cancer treatment are:
Chemotherapy aims to kill cancer cells with cancer drugs that target rapidly dividing cells. Medications can also help reduce tumors, but side effects can be serious. Hormone therapy involves taking medications that alter how certain hormones work or that hinder the body’s ability to produce them. When hormones play an important role, as in the case of prostate and breast cancers, this is a common approach.
Immunotherapy uses cancer drugs and other treatments to strengthen the immune system and encourage it to fight against cancer cells. Two examples of this treatment of cancer are checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive cell transfer.
Precision medicine, or personalized medicine, is a new and developing approach. It involves using genetic tests to determine the best treatments for cancer presentation by a person. Researchers have not yet shown that it can effectively treat cancer.
Radiation therapy uses high-dose radiation to kill cancer cells. In addition, a doctor may recommend the use of radiation to reduce the size of a tumor before surgery or reduce the symptoms associated with the tumor.
Stem cell transplantation can be particularly beneficial for people with blood-related cancers, such as leukemia or lymphoma. It involves eliminating cells, such as red or white blood cells, that chemotherapy or radiation have destroyed. The lab technicians then reinforce the cells and reintroduce them into the body.
Surgery is often part of the treatment plan for a person with a cancerous tumor. In addition, a surgeon can remove lymph nodes to reduce or prevent the spread of the disease.
Targeted therapies perform functions within cancer cells to prevent them from multiplying. They can also strengthen the immune system.
Doctors will often use more than one type of treatment for cancer to maximize effectiveness.
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Type of Cancer
The most common type of cancer in the United States is breast cancer, followed by lung and prostate cancer, according to the National Cancer Institute, which excludes non-melanoma skin cancers from these findings.
Every year, more than 40,000 people in the country are diagnosed with one of the following types of cancer:
According to the National Cancer Institute, there are more than 100 types of cancer.
Cancer development and cell division: Doctors classify cancer by:
For example, sarcomas develop in bones or soft tissues, while carcinomas form in cells that cover the internal or external surfaces of the body. Basal cell carcinomas develop in the skin, while adenocarcinomas can form in the breast.
When cancer cells spread to other parts of the body, the medical term used is a metastasis. A person may also have more than one type of cancer at a time.
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